Game system design can seem like sort of a dark art to the more creatively inclined. Which is a shame as it can prove to be a powerful tool in your arsenal. Furthermore you needn’t have knowledge of material any more advanced than what you learned in high school. All you have to do is learn to apply math to simple game problems.

I feel that I can usually get a good idea of a designers pepper by looking at their formulas. In general there are three levels of understanding:

- A designer can create a system that makes sense.
- A good designer can find ways to make that system intricate and scalable.
- A great designer will see how numbers translate into player enjoyment and frustration.

In this blog I’m going to start to share some game problems and examples of how the power of math can solve them. This post is aimed as an introduction so I will start with the most basic examples:

**Problem #1**: The Level Curve.

This is such a staple, but a lot of aspiring designers I know have never even made a level curve, the mind boggles!

A level curve is straight forward in isolation, but it could impact a great many faucets of your game. So, It’s best to ask yourself some general questions before you begin.

- How many days should it take to experience everything your game has to offer?
- How much EXP are you dishing out per kill/race /click?
- How many battles/races/puzzles do you want per level?

Try your best to conjure up some solid numbers in answer to these questions. You may think it too difficult to accurately pin it down. Some people prefer to playtest prototypes constantly to get a feel for the underlying numbers. Others build elaborate simulations and run those thousands of times. If you are starting from scratch, it’s best to go with what you *ideally want in your game. *Personally I love plucking ideal numbers out of the air, its roughly 100x faster then building anything!

These numbers will be your guiding star, your** constants **in a sea of digits. They are the framework of your level curve. Your level curve could well be the central nervous system of your game. Don’t be scared to make these seemingly big decisions on the spot, just dive in, it will be alright.

If you are building an RPG your answers to the above questions might look something like this:

- (8 days) ~ 200 hours to complete
- Player gets 10exp per battle + another 6 per level they are at.
- (lvl1) = 1 battle, (lvl2) = 2 battles, (lvl3) = 3 battles, (lvl4) = 4 battles, (lvl5) = 5 battles, (lvl6) = 6 battles, (lvl7) = 7 etc…

Great job! Thanks to these values the math seems like a zero brainer. Let’s open a spreadsheet and make a simple graph.

Level | Battles required | EXP won per battle | Total EXP accumulated |

1 | 1 | 16 | 16 |

2 | 2 | 22 | 38 |

3 | 3 | 28 | 66 |

4 | 4 | 34 | 100 |

5 | 5 | 40 | 140 |

6 | 6 | 52 | 186 |

One basic curve! But wait… How do we know how long it will take a player to actually reach level 6 in the above example? It’s impossible to know if you don’t have an idea of the time it takes a player to perform an action that awards EXP in your game.

Again, I suggest aim for your ideal, and later build your game according to that ideal. You are the designer after all. As the designer I might say that a race in my kart game should take on average 3 minutes to complete. Also I believe that my game should last 20 hours. Following the 1 race for each level rule I wind up with the following progression:

If each race is 3 minutes and I want my game to last 20h that means my game is ~400 races long. Wow! But let’s be honest, the player won’t spend all that time racing right? Ideally I want 5 minutes between each race for tuning the car/ decorating. Accounting for the extra 5 minutes per race changes our level curve to this:

The number of races seems reasonable to me. But it now takes the player 20 hours to reach only level 17. Ouch! I want the player to get to level 40 by the time they have sunk 20h into it. In order to do this I need to make them level up faster in fewer races.

To do this we must increment the number of races required to level up a lot more gradually each level, to do that we have to introduce a **delta value** that we use to increment the number of races by every level.

Level | Races required to level up | Races Delta | EXP required (rounded) | Total EXP accumulated (Rounded) | Total races run |

1 | 1 | 0 | 16 | 16 | 1 |

2 | 1 | 0.1 | 22 | 38 | 2 |

3 | 1.1 | 0.1 | 31 | 69 | 3.1 |

4 | 1.2 | 0.1 | 41 | 110 | 4.3 |

5 | 1.3 | 0.1 | 40 | 162 | 5.6 |

6 | 1.4 | 0.1 | 64 | 226 | 7 |

Simply put, the number of actions (races) required to level up = the number of actions it took to level up previously + the delta. Your delta can increase or even decrease as the levels rise. Depending on where you want the player to grind or simply take it easy.

I have to calculate the XP required per level a little differently adjusting for this smoother, more gradual curve. The amount of XP earned from a race is still *10+(6*player level).* But I multiply this value by the ‘races required to level up’ number to get a more accurate measurement of how much XP the player should have to earn to attain the next level.

Deltas are my go-to technique for level curves because it gives me the ability to control the curve as closely as I would like. This is particularly important in earlier levels.

Resulting curve:

**Other methods:**

I have not seen it done on live games but I have often seen budding designers attempt a completely formulaic approach, usually leveraging the Fibonacci sequence (or similar). Curves of this nature generally use a derivative of the following formula:

Basic Formula:

- Current level = F
- XP required to reach current level = N
- N = (Xp required to reach level F-1) + (Xp required to reach level F-2)

Curve Result:

So this curve is obviously not practical due to the rate that it escalates. But we can alter the formula to make it nice and smooth.

Basic Formula:

- Xp = (Xp required to reach level F-1) + ((Xp required to reach level F-2)
***0.1**)

By multiplying part of the formula by a factor of** *0.1** we slow the climb of our curve quite visibly.

While you might make a neat curve from 1 – 100 using this kind of technique, you have set your game up poorly for any additional levels you may want to add down the line. You will likely wind up dishing out exorbitant amounts of XP to keep up with new level requirements. It seems inevitable that you would find the need to slow down the curve at some point.

Conclusion

By now it should be clear that building a lovely level curve is not rocket science. As long as you define your **constants **before you start. If you are struggling to think of some clear numbers, ask yourself the following questions to get started:

- How many days should it take to experience everything your game has to offer?
- How much EXP are you dishing out per kill/race/puzzle?
- How many battles/races/puzzles do you want per level?
- How much time does it take to perform one battle/race/puzzle?

Use your constants as a set of requirements that your level curve has to conform to. Initially identify the primary action of your game (such as fighting) and figure out how many primary actions a player should perform to get to the next level.

Secondly, you should build your curve formula to be easily adjustable and scalable. As most games released now are often actively updated and maintained, level cap extensions are common occurrences. If you don’t have control over the XP requirement ramp in later levels, you may wind up placing unreasonable requests on players. Bad numbers = unhappy players, after all.